Whenever 3rd June comes, it is a 'ritual' that Christians flock to Namugongo both the Catholics and Protestant sites for prayers remembering the Christian Marytrs who died for their faith. What surprises me is that many people look forward to this day, but equally a number of them are part of the reason of the bad publicity of our country. I really wonder why they take the time as a ritual and hence don't get physical transformation. My prayer is that given the background of the Martyrs, we gradually get people of changed morals. Uganda is indeed a sad story.
William kituuka Kiwanuka
ARCHBISHOP SABINO CALL FOR DIALOGUE TO SOLVE POLITICAL RIFTS
The main celebrant, Archbishop Odoki of Arua Diocese. PHOTO BY JOSEPH KIGGUNDU
By Monitor Team
Posted Saturday, June 4 2011 at 00:00
At least a million Christians celebrated the Uganda Martyrs’ Day at Namugongo shrine yesterday with the lead celebrant calling for “serious dialogue to address political and social problems in the country”.
Clad in the ceremonial catholic robes, Archbishop Sabino Ocan Odoki of Arua Diocese, told pilgrims that this will be the only way to amicably solve the country’s problems instead of “the walk-to-work campaign and teargas”.
“Uganda is known for her beauty and hospitality but it is also known for political turbulence and tribalism. We should address this through dialogue,” he said to a crowd which included the newly-appointed Vice President Edward Kiwanuka Sekandi who represented the President, and pilgrims who had trekked from Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Sudan, DR Congo, among other countries.
Every June 3, Christian pilgrims from within and without gather at Namugongo Christian shrines to remember and celebrate the lives of the 45 Christians - both Catholics and Anglicans - who were martyred by King Mwanga between 1885 and 1887.
In the day’s cultural milieu the Bible was presented to the altar in a granary to symbolise that the Gospel of God is food.
There were also 24 catechists each with palm leaves, symbolising victory and also representing the martyrs. Initially remembered and commemorated only by the Catholics, the celebrations today are also embraced by the Anglicans.
But according to Bishop Odoki, also 72 Muslims were martyred together with the Christians and President Amin built the Mosque near the Anglican shrine in honour of those Muslim martyrs.
“These martyrs, although of various faiths and cultural backgrounds, were believers in God. This gift of faith is only reached in freedom as a gift of God’s love,” he said, adding that the situation in Uganda today calls for a replica of the unity that was exhibited by the martyrs whom he said sat together as royal servants of the Kabaka, irrespective of their backgrounds, and embraced faith.
In Arua District, the lead celebrant, Fr Ceasar Dralega, called on Ugandans to resist injustices of human rights abuses and in the judiciary in the country.
That although Ugandans have witnessed widespread abuses of their rights, especially the ruthlessness with which the military quashed protests against rising commodity and fuel prices, he called on Christians to emulate the martyrs who chose to suffer and die when they were persecuted and oppressed by Kabaka.
He advised that even in hard times, Christians should be joyful because the Martyrs chose to have a better life by suffering and dying for their faith and truth.
“We should have a critical mind-set to reject what is wrong in society. You should have courage to resist injustice in judicial system and violation in the systems,” he said.
Reported by Emmanuel Mulondo, Isaac Imaka, Mercy Nalugo and Warom Felix Okello
THOUSAND FLOCK NAMUGONGO FOR MARTYRS DAY
By Emmanuel Mulondo,Ephraim Kasozi & Mercy Nalugo
Clergymen lead a procession of believers who turned up at the Martyrs’ shrine in Namugongo
By Apollo Mubiru
THOUSANDS of pilgrims yesterday flocked to both the Catholic and Anglican shrines at Namugongo, near Kampala, to mark the Martyrs day.
Every June 3, Christians of the two denominations in the region and the rest of Africa pay homage to the 45 Martyrs, who were killed by Buganda King Muwanga II in 1884, for converting to Christianity.
This year’s celebrations at the Catholic shrine were organised by Arua diocese with the Diocesan Bishop Sabino Odoki as the main celebrant.
There was excitement as Christians from Arua diocese carried a Bible in a ‘mobile’ granary amid singing.
They said this signified the word of God, which is food to Christians.
Bishop Sabino described the Martyrs as models for a Christian life, saying they made Uganda to be known to the rest of the world.
Archbishop Cyprian Kizito Lwanga and Emmanuel Cardinal Wamala were among the Clergy at the main altar erected on a small island in the man-made lake.
The Government was represented by the Vice-President, Edward Ssekandi, who was flanked by several ministers.
Opposition leaders Norbert Mao (DP) and Olara Otunnu (UPC) were among the worshipers at the Namugongo Catholic Basillica.
Posted Friday, June 3 2011 at 00:00
Christians today flock Namugongo in Wakiso District to commemorate the killing of 45 early converts who eventually became the Uganda Martyrs.
About one-and-a half million pilgrims are expected at the Catholic and Protestant shrines.
Initially remembered and commemorated only by the Catholics, the celebrations today are also embraced by the Anglicans.
Vice President Edward Kiwanuka Ssekandi and Prime Minister Amama Mbabazi are expected to be chief guests at the respective shrines where they also fall in terms of faith.
Arua Diocese is leading the Catholic celebrations while Namirembe Diocese is leading the Anglican fete.
Arua Diocesan Bishop Sabino Ocan Odoki will be chief celebrant at the Catholic Shrine with Archbishop John Baptist Odama of Gulu, who is also the chairman of the Ugandan Episcopal Conference, and Dr Cyprian Kizito Lwanga, the Archbishop of Kampala, and several other local and international prelates and priests as co-celebrants.
A programme released yesterday by Fr Aquilino Acidri, the pastoral coordinator of Arua diocese, indicated prayers will begin with a liturgical procession from the Martyrs’ Basilica at 9:30am to the prayer square (Kayanja). Holy mass will begin at 10am, ending at 1pm.
Speeches from the Arua diocese leader of laity, Chairman Uganda National Council for the lay Apostolate, Chairman – Uganda Episcopal Conference, the Apostolic Nuncio to Uganda and a representative of Government will follow.
The Rev. Can. Henry Ssegawa, the principal of Uganda Martyrs Seminary at the Anglican shrine, said today’s celebrations will run under the theme: “You will be my witness… (Acts 1:8)”.
Hive of activity
Bishop Stephen Mwangi of Nakuru Diocese in Kenya will be guest preacher. The service there will also start at 10am. Hundreds of pilgrims started flocking the shrines on Wednesday and many were by yesterday while touring and others were buried in prayer.
The Anglican shrine sits on land donated by ex-Buganda premier Tefiro Kisosonkole who commissioned there a church on June 26, 1935. The altar of the Church is the grave yard for the remains of the burnt martyrs.
At the site just in front of the shrine was the former command post for Mukajjanga, the chief executioner who presided over the burning of the martyrs. Mukajjanga, though responsible for the execution of martyrs, later died a baptised Christian—named Daniel. He was buried at Kakiri-Buyoga.
“For us we come each year to emulate the martyrs but this place has made the country great because the world over, Uganda is known for its attachment to martyrs. The Uganda martyrs are outstanding that is why a number of churches conduct services in memory of the martyrs,” said Canon Ssegawa, a pilgrim.
Apart from local pilgrims, some have arrived from Nigeria, Malawi, Dr Congo, United States, Kenya, Rwanda and Burundi among others. At the Catholic shrine there were 10 vigil masses for different sections of pilgrims to accord them opportunity to pray in their own languages and based on their spiritual and real needs.
THE CHRISTAN MARTYRS OF UGANDA
The arrival of the Christian missionaries, Anglican and Catholic, set the stage for new developments, and marked a turning point in the religious life of the people of Buganda; as well as the political structure of the kingdom and the region at large. The history of Buganda from this point on took a different turn. A social revolution that was to transform all aspects of people's lives had set in, and the events that followed, unpredictable as they were, added to the discomfort the new changes had brought about. The untimely death of Mutesa I in 1884 just a few years after the arrival of the missionaries, left the kingdom in the hands of Mwanga II, a youth whose ruling style fell far short of the charisma and political astuteness his late father had demonstrated in dealing with the foreigners.
Mutesa had the astuteness and maturity of dealing with conflicting forces that struggled to influence his court. The Arabs (the Moslems), the Catholics (the French or Bafaransa as they were locally called) or the Protestants (the English or Bangereza) operated, of course not without constraint, with some minimal success during his reign. He let his subjects of all ranks to join any creed of their choice. The Arabs also having seen the Christian missionaries' efforts to convert the local people also diligently started to teach Islam. There was a competitive struggle among the preachers of the new creeds each attempting to assert more influence and recognition among the most influential officials in the inner circle of the king's court. The king himself never committed to any single creed. The Moslems denounced him for his refusal to be circumcised, and he could not be baptized in the Christian denominations because he did not want to give up polygamy. He died still a traditionalist.
The Christian religion was received with much excitement by the converts but it came with its own requirements. It denounced all the native religious behavior and practices as heathen and satanic. Therefore joining it meant a commitment to break away from the old life style, make and adopt new alliances, and adjust to new moral and religious standards, adherence and allegiance. The new flock of believers ( abasomi, or readers, as they were called) therefore, were seemingly regarded as 'rebels' who had transferred their loyalty to new religious systems thus abandoning the old tribal traditions.
Although Mwanga had shown some love for the missionaries as a young prince, his attitude changed when he became king. The once lively and enthusiastic prince in support of the missionaries turned into an intolerant and vicious persecutor of Christians and all foreigners. He felt, with good cause, that the powers and authority his predecessors had enjoyed were dwindling, and had disintegrated under the influence of the missionaries and their converts. The converts had diverted their loyalty to some other authority and their allegiance at all costs could no longer be counted on. For Mwanga, the ultimate humiliation was the insolence he received from the pages when they ( the least subservient of servants) resisted his homosexual advances. According to old tradition the king was the center of power and authority, and he could dispense with any life as he felt, hence the old saying Namunswa alya kunswaze (the queen ant feeds on her subjects). Although homosexuality is abhorred among the Baganda, it was unheard of for mere pages to reject the wishes of a king. (It is alleged that Mwanga learnt or acquired homosexual behavior from the Arabs). Given those conflicting values Mwanga was determined to rid his kingdom of the new teaching and its followers.
It was hardly a year after Mwanga's assumption of the throne that he ordered the execution of Yusufu (Joseph) Rugarama, Makko (Mark) Kakumba, and Nuwa (Noah) Serwanga the first three Christian martyrs, who were killed at Busega Natete on January 31, 1885. In October of 1885 the Anglican Bishop James Hannington recently dispatched to head the Eastern Equatorial Africa, headquartered in Buganda, was murdered in Busoga on his way to Buganda. Mwanga had ordered his death. Hannington's crime was to attempt to come to Buganda through Busoga, a shorter route than that employed by earlier visitors who took the route from south of lake Victoria. Buganda's kings regarded Busoga as a backdoor to Buganda and thought that any one coming through the backdoor must have evil intentions towards the kingdom.
Joseph Mukasa Balikuddembe, a senior advisor to the king and a Catholic convert, condemned Mwanga for ordering Hannington's death without giving him (Hannington) a chance to defend himself as was customary. Mwanga was annoyed that Mukasa would question his actions, and he had him arrested and killed. On Nov. 15 1885; Mukasa became the first Catholic martyr, when he was beheaded at Nakivubo. Between December of 1885 and May of 1886 many more converts were wantonly murdered. Mwanga precipitated a showdown in May by ordering the converts to choose between their new faith, and complete obedience to his orders. Those unwilling to renounce their new faith would be subject to death. Courageously, the neophytes chose their faith. The execution of twenty six Christians at Namugongo on June 3, 1886; was the climax of the campaign against the converts. The last person killed in this crusade, was Jean-Marie Muzeeyi, who was beheaded at Mengo on Jan 27, 1887. The complete list of the known martyrs is given below. The list of forty five known Catholic and Protestant martyrs includes only those who could be formally accounted for, many more murders went unreported and without a record.
Uganda's Christian Martyrs
Martyr's Name Birthplace Clan Religion M A R T Y R E D Date Place Manner
1 Kakumba, Makko Buganda Ffumbe Anglican Jan 31, 1885 Busega Dismembered and Burned
2 Rugarama, Yusuf Ankole Anglican Jan 31, 1885 Busega Dismembered and Burned
3 Sserwanga, Nuwa Buganda Ngeye Anglican Jan 31, 1885 Busega Dismembered and Burned
4 Balikuddembe, Yosefu Mukasa Buganda Kayozi Catholic Nov 15, 1885 Nakivubo Beheaded and Burned
5 Mukasa, Musa Buganda Ffumbe Anglican May 25, 1886 Munyonyo Speared
6 Kaggwa, Anderea Bunyoro Catholic May 26, 1886 Munyonyo Beheaded
7 Ngondwe, Ponsiano Buganda Nnyonyi Nnyange Catholic May 26, 1886 Ttakajjunge Beheaded and Dismembered
8 Ssebuggwawo, Denis Buganda Musu Catholic May 26, 1886 Munyonyo Beheaded
9 Bazzekuketta, Antanansio Buganda Nkima Catholic May 27, 1886 Nakivubo Dismembered
10 Gonza, Gonzaga Busoga Mpologoma Catholic May 27, 1886 Lubowa Beheaded
11 Mbwa, Eriya Buganda Ndiga Anglican May 27, 1886 Mengo Castrated
12 Muddu-aguma Anglican May 27, 1886 Mengo Castrated
13 Mulumba, Matiya Busoga Lugave Catholic May 27, 1886 Old Kampala Dismembered
14 Muwanga, Daudi Buganda Ngonge Anglican Namanve Castrated
15 Kayizzi, Kibuuka Buganda Mmamba Anglican May 31, 1886 Mityana Castrated
16 Mawaggali, Nowa Buganda Ngabi Catholic May 31, 1886 Mityana Speared, Ravaged by wild dogs
17 Mayanja, Kitoogo Buganda Ffumbe Anglican May 31, 1886 Mityana Castrated
18 Muwanga Buganda Nvuma Anglican May 31, 1886 Mityana Castrated
19 Lwanga, Karoli Buganda Ngabi Catholic June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
20 Baanabakintu, Lukka Buganda Mmamba Catholic June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
21 Buuzabalyawo, Yakobo Buganda Ngeye Catholic June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
22 Gyaviira Buganda Mmamba Catholic June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
23 Kibuuka, Ambrosio Buganda Lugave Catholic June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
24 Kiriggwajjo, Anatoli Bunyoro Catholic June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
25 Kiriwawanvu, Mukasa Buganda Ndiga Catholic June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
26 Kiwanuka, Achileo Buganda Lugave Catholic June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
27 Kizito Buganda Mmamba Catholic June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
28 Ludigo, Mukasa Adolofu Toro Catholic June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
29 Mugagga Buganda Ngo Catholic June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
30 Sserunkuuma, Bruno Buganda Ndiga Catholic June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
31 Tuzinde, Mbaga Buganda Mmamba Catholic June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
32 Kadoko, Alexanda Buganda Ndiga Anglican June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
33 Kifamunnyanja Buganda Anglican June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
34 Kiwanuka, Giyaza Buganda Mpeewo Anglican June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
35 Kizza, Frederick Buganda Ngabi Anglican June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
36 Kwabafu Buganda Mmamba Anglican June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
37 Lwakisiga, Mukasa Buganda Ngabi Anglican June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
38 Lwanga Buganda Anglican June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
39 Mubi-azaalwa Buganda Mbwa Anglican June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
40 Munyagabyangu, Robert Buganda Mmamba Anglican June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
41 Muwanga, Njigija Buganda Anglican June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
42 Nakabandwa, Danieri Buganda Mmamba Anglican June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
43 Walukagga, Nuwa Buganda Kasimba Anglican June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
44 Wasswa Buganda Mmamba Anglican June 3, 1886 Namugongo Burned
45 Muzeeyi, Jean-Marie Buganda Mbogo Catholic Jan 27, 1887 Mengo Beheaded
In his efforts to curb the Christian influence and try to regain the traditional and customary powers and authorities over his subjects, Mwanga was adding more chaos to an already chaotic situation. In the north Kabarega (the king of Bunyoro Kitara a traditional arch enemy of Buganda) was raging, fighting off the pending invasion from the Khedive of Egypt and for sure he never lost his intentions towards Buganda. Further south it was reported that the Germans were annexing territories in the regions of the present Tanzania, and Mwanga was caught in a threatening position. His suspicion of the missionaries was therefore real. Buganda also was experiencing internal strife, the Moslems were plotting to overthrow him and replace him with a Moslem prince. The political upheavals combined with religious instability constrained the country's moral stamina. The kingdom was thrown into turmoil; Moslems fighting Christians, traditionalists plotting against all creeds, untimely alliances concocted to survive against a common foe and later unceremoniously discarded. The kingdom broke into civil strife during which Mwanga was briefly deposed, although he was able to regain his throne later.
Rather than deter the growth of Christianity, the martyrdom of these early believers seems to have sparked its growth instead. As has been observed in many other instances, the blood of the martyrs proved to be the seed of faith. Christianity (in its various flavours) is now the dominant faith in Buganda and Uganda as a whole. The 22 known Catholic martyrs were declared "Blessed" by Pope Benedict XV in 1920. This is one of the key steps in the catholic tradition that eventually leads to canonization. The 22 Catholic martyrs were indeed canonized by Pope Paul VI on October 18, 1964; during the Vatican II conference. Thus these martyrs were now recognised by the universal church as being worthy of being honored as Saints. This was a first for modern Africa and a source of pride throughout the continent.
Basilica Church of the Uganda Martyrs, Namugongo.
Notice the traditional 'kasiisira' style of this modern structure.
To honor these modern saints, Paul VI became the first reigning pope to visit sub-saharan Africa when he visited Uganda in July 1969; a visit which included a pilgrimage to the site of the martyrdom at Namugongo. He also dedicated a site for the building of a shrine church in honor of the martyrs, at the spot where Charles Lwanga was killed. The shrine church itself (shown above), was dedicated in 1975 and it was subsequently named a basilica church, a high honor in Catholicism. Archbishop Robert Runcie of Canterbury, and head of the worldwide Anglican Communion, also came on pilgrimage in January 1984. Pope John Paul II in turn honored the martyrs with his own pilgrimage in February 1993. Every year, June 3rd, when most of the martyrs were killed, is marked as a national holiday in Uganda. It is also marked worldwide on the church calender as a day to honor the Uganda Martyrs. Following is a portrait of the 22 canonized Catholic martyrs.
The 22 Canonized Martyrs of Uganda